The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 1     26. Jan. 2017
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 1  (26.01.2017)

Page 180-187, doi:10.11607/jomi.4684, PubMed:28095522


Correlation Between Resonance Frequency Analysis and Bone Quality Assessments at Dental Implant Recipient Sites
Fu, Min-Wen / Fu, Earl / Lin, Fu-Gong / Chang, Wei-Jeng / Hsieh, Yao-Dung / Shen, E-Chin
Purpose: To evaluate whether primary implant stability could be used to predict bone quality, the association between the implant stability quotient (ISQ) value and the bone type at the implant site was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-five implant sites in 50 patients were included. Bone type (categorized by Lekholm and Zarb) at the implant site was initially assessed using presurgical dental radiography. During the preparation of the implant site, a bone core specimen was carefully obtained. The bone type was assessed by tactile sensation during the drilling operation, according to the Misch criteria. The primary stability of the inserted implant was evaluated by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The ISQ value was recorded. The bone core specimen was then examined by stereomicroscopy or microcomputed tomography (micro- CT), and the bone type was determined by the surface characteristics of the specimen, based on Lekholm and Zarb classification. Agreement between the bone quality assessed by the four methods (ie, presurgical radiography, tactile sensation, stereomicroscopy, and micro-CT) was tested by Cohen's kappa statistics, whereas the association between the ISQ value and the bone type was evaluated by the generalized linear regression model.
Results: The mean ISQ score was 72.6, and the score was significantly influenced by the maxillary or mandibular arch (P = .001). The bone type at the implant sites varied according to the assessment method. However, a significant influence of the arch was repeatedly noted when using radiography or tactile sensation. Among the four bone-quality assessment methods, a weak agreement existed only between stereomicroscopy and micro-CT, especially in the maxilla (κ = 0.469). A negative association between the ISQ value and the bone type assessed by stereomicroscopy or by micro-CT was significant in the maxilla, but not in the mandible, after adjustments for sex, age, and right/left side (P = .013 and P = .027 for stereomicroscopy and micro-CT, respectively).
Conclusion: The ISQ value was weakly associated with the bone type when assessed by stereomicroscopy or micro-CT in the maxilla. Caution is necessary if RFA is used as a tool to evaluate bone quality at the implant site, especially in the mandible.

Keywords: bone, dental implants, diagnosis, microcomputed tomography, resonance frequency analysis, structural biology
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