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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 18 (2003), No. 3     15. May 2003
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 18 (2003), No. 3  (15.05.2003)

Page 349-356

A Histomorphometric Analysis of the Effects of Various Surface Treatment Methods on Osseointegration
Kim, Yeon-Hee / Koak, Jai-Young / Chang, Ik-Tae / Wennerberg, Ann / Heo, Seong-Joo
Purpose: One major factor in the success and biocompatibility of an implant is its surface properties. The purposes of this study were to analyze the surface characteristics of implants after blasting and thermal oxidation and to evaluate the bone response around these implants with histomorphometric analysis.
Materials and Methods: Threaded implants (3.75 mm in diameter, 8.0 mm in length) were manufactured by machining a commercially pure titanium (grade 2). A total of 48 implants were evaluated with histomorphometric methods and included in the statistical analyses. Two different groups of samples were prepared according to the following procedures: Group 1 samples were blasted with 50- µm aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, and group 2 samples were blasted with 50- µm Al2O3, then thermally oxidized at 800°C for 2 hours in a pure oxygen atmosphere. A noncontacting optical profilometer was used to measure the surface topography. The surface composition of the implants used and the oxide thickness were investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry.
Results: The different preparations produced implant surfaces with essentially similar chemical composition, but with different oxide thickness and roughness. The morphologic evaluation of the bone formation revealed that: (1) the percentage of bone-to-implant contact of the oxidized implants (33.3%) after 4 weeks was greater than that of the blasted group (23.1%); (2) the percentages of bone-to-implant contact after 12 weeks were not statistically significantly different between the groups; (3) the percentages of bone area inside the thread after 4 weeks and 12 weeks were not statistically significantly different between groups. Discussion and
Conclusion: This investigation demonstrated the possibility that different surface treatments, such as blasting and oxidation, have an effect on the ingrowth of bone into the thread. However, the clinical implications of surface treatments on implants, and the exact mechanisms by which the surface properties of the implant affect the process of osseointegration, remain subjects for further study.