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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 29 (2014), No. 3     11. July 2014
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 29 (2014), No. 3  (11.07.2014)

Page 718-726, doi:10.11607/jomi.3657, PubMed:24818213


Perforation of the Sinus Membrane During Sinus Floor Elevation: A Retrospective Study of Frequency and Possible Risk Factors
von Arx, Thomas / Fodich, Ivo / Bornstein, Michael M. / Jensen, Simon S.
Purpose: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors.
Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical and radiographic variables potentially influencing the risk of sinus membrane perforation were evaluated and divided into patient-related factors (age, sex, smoking habit); surgery-related factors (type of surgical approach, side, units, sites, and technique of osteotomy); and maxillary sinus-related factors (presence and height of septum, height of residual ridge, thickness of lateral sinus wall, width of antrum, and thickness and status of sinus membrane).
Results: The following factors presented with at least a 10% difference in rates of perforations: smokers (46.2%) versus nonsmokers (23.4%), simultaneous (32%) versus staged (18.5%) approach, mixed premolar-molar sites (41.2%) versus premolar-only sites (16.7%) versus molar-only sites (26.2%), presence of septa (42.9%) versus no septa (23.8%), and minimum height of residual ridge ≤ 4 mm (34.2%) versus > 4 mm (20.5%). These same parameters, except minimum height of residual ridge, also showed an odds ratio above 2. However, none of the comparisons reached statistical significance.
Conclusion: The present study failed to demonstrate any factor that statistically significantly increased the risk of sinus membrane perforation during SFE using the lateral window approach.

Keywords: radiographic analysis, retrospective study, risk factors, sinus floor elevation, sinus membrane