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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 1     21. Jan. 2015
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 1  (21.01.2015)

Page 196-201, doi:10.11607/jomi.3518, PubMed:25265123

Clinical Assessment of Bone Quality of Human Extraction Sockets After Conversion with Growth Factors
Ntounis, Athanasios / Geurs, Nico / Vassilopoulos, Philip / Reddy, Michael
Purpose: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement.
Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. A simple (not weighted) kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between raters. To assess accuracy in identifying bone quality, a chi-square test was used to compare the percent correct for each rater.
Results: The benchtop calibration exercise test demonstrated agreement among clinicians (0.75 and 0.92 between raters 1 and 2 and raters 1 and 3, respectively). Raters were more likely to identify the correct bone quality (P > .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles.
Conclusion: (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may enhance healing within extraction sockets and decrease the healing time prior to dental implant placement.

Keywords: bone quality, extraction socket, freeze-dried bone allograft, platelet-rich plasma, recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB