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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 29 (2014), No. 6     19. Dec. 2014
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 29 (2014), No. 6  (19.12.2014)

Page 1264-1270, doi:10.11607/jomi.2607, PubMed:25397790

Assessment of the Correlation Between Implant Stability and Bone Density by Computed Tomography and Resonance Frequency Analysis in Fresh Cadavers
Coutant, Jean-Christophe / Seguela, Vincent / Hauret, Laurent / Caix, Philippe / Ella, Bruno
Purpose: Because of the immediate loading implant process, clinicians must consider implant primary stability issues before initiating surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the bone density assessed by computed tomography (CT) images and the primary stability of two implant designs, as determined by resonance frequency analysis (RFA).
Materials and Methods: Sixty implants (30 NobelActive, 30 NobelSpeedy [Nobel Biocare]) were placed in five totally edentulous fresh cadaver maxillae. Before surgery, CT images were analyzed and bone densities measured. Implant primary stabilities (measured in implant stability quotient [ISQ] units) were determined along the buccolingual and mesiodistal axes by RFA. Correlations were assessed using the Pearson correlation test.
Results: Bone densities were similar near NobelActive and NobelSpeedy implants: 434.67 (± 220.53) versus 479.87 (± 209.05) Hounsfield Units (HU). Bone densities and NobelActive primary stabilities were highly correlated with ρ = 0.74 (P = .000) and ρ = 0.78 (P = .000) for the buccolingual and mesiodistal axes, respectively. An association was found between the 350 HU and 50 ISQ values, confirming good primary stabilities. For NobelSpeedy implants, no correlation was found regardless of the axis, with ρ = -0.07 (P = .72) (buccolingual) and ρ = -0.10 (P = .59) (mesiodistal). However, poor and good stabilities were observed in the anterior and posterior areas, respectively.
Conclusion: This study revealed variations in primary stabilities depending on the implant design. The primary stability of conical implants with a double-lead thread design (NobelActive) seemed bone density-dependent regardless of the area of the maxilla, whereas the primary stability of nearly parallel-wall implants with a classical thread design (NobelSpeedy) seemed dependent on anatomical morphology. These results raise questions about the specific roles of the implant shape and thread design depending on the bone density and alveolar morphology.

Keywords: bone density, implant design, implant primary stability, resonance frequency analysis