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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 3     19. May 2015
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 3  (19.05.2015)

Page 546-554, doi:10.11607/jomi.3942, PubMed:26009905


In Vitro Fatigue and Fracture Resistance of One- and Two-Piece CAD/CAM Zirconia Implant Abutments
Gehrke, Peter / Johannson, Dirk / Fischer, Carsten / Stawarczyk, Bogna / Beuer, Florian
Purpose: All-ceramic abutments are employed increasingly often in implant dentistry for esthetic reasons. In vitro stress testing is required to evaluate the suitability of these constructions, especially in load-bearing posterior regions. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the fatigue and fracture resistance of one- and two-piece computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia implant abutments with an internal-hex connection and prefabricated commercially available zirconia stock abutments.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-one abutment-crown specimens were prepared for three test groups. Control group 1 (SZ) included specimens with unprepared stock zirconia abutments, test group 2 (OP) included onepiece CAD/CAM zirconia abutments, and test group 3 (TP) included two-piece CAD/CAM zirconia abutments. All 21 specimens underwent thermocycling and fatigue testing. Finally, all specimens were tested for fracture resistance with a universal testing machine. The maximum load was applied to the tapered occlusal area of each crown at a 30-degree angle and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until the implant-abutment connection failed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, and post-hoc Scheffé tests were used for statistical analysis.
Results: All abutments in groups SZ and OP fractured into two or more pieces after fracture resistance testing. None of the TP abutments displayed apparent disintegration, but failure was evidenced by bending of the retention screw. OP abutments (232.1 ± 29.8 N) and SZ abutments (251.8 ± 23.2 N) showed lower fracture loads than the TP abutments (291.4 ± 27.8 N). However, only the difference between the OP and TP groups was statistically significant. Further load-displacement analyses corroborated the higher mechanical stability of the TP abutments.
Conclusion: Superior resistance was achieved for two-piece hybrid CAD/CAM zirconia abutments. These abutments might be clinically beneficial in high-load areas, such as premolar and molar regions.

Keywords: ceramics, computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture, dental stress analysis, fracture load, hybrid abutments, elasticity, implant abutments, zirconia