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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 4     20. Aug. 2015
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 30 (2015), No. 4  (20.08.2015)

Page 868-879, doi:10.11607/jomi.3994, PubMed:26252039


Effect of UV Photofunctionalization on Biologic and Anchoring Capability of Orthodontic Miniscrews
Tabuchi, Masako / Ikeda, Takayuki / Hirota, Makoto / Nakagawa, Kaori / Park, Wonhee / Miyazawa, Ken / Goto, Shigemi / Ogawa, Takahiro
Purpose: Treatment of titanium with UV light immediately before use, or photofunctionalization, is gaining traction as a simple method to improve the biologic capability and clinical performance of dental implants. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of photofunctionalization on the biologic capability and mechanical anchorage of orthodontic miniscrews.
Materials and Methods: Untreated and photofunctionalized Ti-6Al-4V orthodontic miniscrews were placed into rat femurs. Photofunctionalization was performed by treating miniscrews with UV light for 12 minutes using a photo device immediately before placement. After 3 weeks of healing, miniscrews were pushed laterally to measure the resistance against the tipping force. The miniscrews were also evaluated for morphology and chemistry of tissue formed around them using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on Ti-6Al-4V disks with and without photofunctionalization. The number of osteoblasts attached to the disks and the behaviors, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization capability of osteoblasts were evaluated.
Results: Photofunctionalization converted both disk and screw surfaces from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. In vivo biomechanical testing showed that the displacement of untreated screws was 1.5 to 1.7 times greater than that of photofunctionalized screws when subjected to lateral tipping force. Robust bone formation was observed around photofunctionalized miniscrews with strong elemental peaks of calcium and phosphorus, whereas the tissue around untreated miniscrews appeared thin and showed no clear peak of calcium. The attachment, initial spreading, adhesion, and expression of functional phenotypes of osteoblasts were significantly increased on photofunctionalized Ti-6Al-4V disks.
Conclusion: These in vivo and in vitro results comprehensively and consistently demonstrate that photofunctionalization increases the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4V and improves the anchoring capability of orthodontic miniscrews.

Keywords: biologic aging, bone-implant integration, hydrophilicity, Ti alloy, osseointegration