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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 1     26. Jan. 2017
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 1  (26.01.2017)

Page 52-62, doi:10.11607/jomi.4891, PubMed:28095515


Effects of Ultraviolet Photofunctionalization on Bone Augmentation and Integration Capabilities of Titanium Mesh and Implants
Hirota, Makoto / Ikeda, Takayuki / Tabuchi, Masako / Ozawa, Tomomichi / Tohnai, Iwai / Ogawa, Takahiro
Purpose: Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization has earned considerable attention for the enhancement of the biologic capabilities of titanium. The effects of photofunctionalization on bone augmentation and gap closure were examined using titanium implants and mesh in a rat femur model.
Materials and Methods: An acid-etched titanium implant (4-mm length, 1-mm diameter) was placed in the gluteal tuberosity that resembles a knife-edge-like edentulous ridge. The lower half of the implant was located in a 2-mm-diameter defect created in the bone without cortical bone support; the upper half was exposed and covered with a titanium mesh to provide augmentation space. After 12 and 24 days of healing, specimens were subjected to microcomputed tomography (micro-CT)- and histology-based bone morphometry in three zones of analysis: augmentation, cortical bone-implant gap, and bone marrow. A biomechanical push-in test was performed to examine the strength of bone-implant integration. Photofunctionalization was performed by treating titanium implants and mesh with UV light for 12 minutes.
Results: Photofunctionalized titanium mesh and implants were hydrophilic, whereas untreated controls were hydrophobic. Bone volume was significantly greater in photofunctionalized implants and mesh than in untreated implants in all zones on days 12 and 24. Bone-to-implant contact of photofunctionalized implants was greater than that of untreated implants, not just in the bone marrow but also in the gap and augmented zones. The strength of osseointegration was three times greater for photofunctionalized implants than for untreated implants.
Conclusion: Use of photofunctionalized titanium mesh and implants effectively enhanced vertical bone augmentation, cortical bone-implant gap closure, and osseointegration without innate bone support.

Keywords: bone engineering, osseointegration, photofunctionalization, titanium mesh, ultraviolet