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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 5     19. Sep. 2017
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 5  (19.09.2017)

Page 976-984, doi:10.11607/jomi.5630, PubMed:28906501


Impact of Cleaning Procedures on Adhesion of Living Cells to Three Abutment Materials
Mehl, Christian / Kern, Matthias / Zimmermann, Anna / Harder, Sönke / Huth, Steven / Selhuber-Unkel, Christine
Purpose: To test the adhesion properties of live gingival fibroblasts to three different implant abutment materials after five different cleaning procedures.
Materials and Methods: Highly polished discs of lithium disilicate (LS), zirconium dioxide (Zr), and titanium alloy (Ti) were fabricated. The specimens were cleaned by one of five different methods: steam (S), argon plasma (AP), ultrasound and disinfection (UD), ultrasound and sterilization in an autoclave (UA), or photofunctionalization with high-intensity ultraviolet light (PF). Cell detachment force (adhesion) was measured by single-cell force spectroscopy, which is a method to quantify cell adhesion at the single cell level. Data were statistically analyzed using parametric tests (analysis of variance [ANOVA], t tests).
Results: Cell detachment forces in the low nN regime were recorded in all experiments. Significant differences in cell adhesion on the different materials were found as a function of the cleaning method (P ≤ .0001). For LS abutments, no significant differences between the cleaning methods could be found (P > .05). For Zr specimens, the AP method showed the highest cell detachment forces, followed by UD, PF, S, and UA (S/UD, S/UA, S/PF, AP/UD, and UD/PF were not significantly different from each other). For Ti abutments, UD showed the highest cell detachment forces, followed by S, AP, and UA/PF (S/UD, S/UA, S/PF, AP/U, and UA/PF were not significantly different from each other).
Conclusion: All cleaning methods provided comparable cell detachment forces for LS abutments. AP/PF or ultrasonic cleaning were the most suitable methods for strong cell adhesion on Zr. UD provided the best cell adhesion for Ti.

Keywords: cell adhesion, ceramic, cleaning methods, dentin, lithium disilicate, physico-chemical properties, resin cement, single-cell force spectroscopy, surface treatment, titanium alloy, zirconium dioxide