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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 6     21. Nov. 2017
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 6  (21.11.2017)

Page 1266-1272, doi:10.11607/jomi.6063, PubMed:29140371

Biofunctionalization of Titanium Granules with Simvastatin for Improving Osteogenic Activity and Antibacterial Properties (Ex Vivo Study)
Karaji, Zahra Gorgin / Houshmand, Behzad / Abbasi, Shahsanam / Shafiei, Sara / Faghihi, Shahab
Purpose: Titanium-based biomaterials present good biocompatibility, while their osseointegration and antibacterial properties need to be improved. This study aimed to enhance the bone-bonding ability of titaniumbased granules, which are intended to be used as bone graft.
Materials and Methods: The titanium granules were anodized in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte and subsequently annealed to be loaded separately with simvastatin. The samples were then inspected with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for drug loading. The release of simvastatin from titanium granule samples was measured after soaking samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 30 days using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG63 osteosarcoma-loaded samples was measured, and microbroth dilution assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of drug-loaded and nonloaded titanium granule samples for bacterial growth.
Results: The results expressed the gradual and constant release of simvastatin within the duration of the examination. ALP of the samples showed improved activity of anodized and annealed granules, while the antibacterial test illustrated no significant improvement in their bactericidal effects. However, the simvastatin-loaded samples showed an improved antibacterial effect compared with nonloaded samples.
Conclusion: It is assumed that anodizing, annealing, and subsequent simvastatin loading of titanium granules could be used as surface modification to improve osseointegration and restrain bacterial growth and adhesion. It is fair to believe that the results of this study could be used to treat titanium granules as bone graft substitute materials for dental and orthopedic applications.

Keywords: bactericidal effect, bone graft, osseointegration, porous titanium granules, simvastatin