Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 32 (2017), No. 6 21. Nov. 2017
Clinicians very often have seen marginal bone loss around dental implants at the crest level early on after implant placement and uncovering. Early clinical publications had suggested that this bone loss occurred during the first year of loading. Thus, numerous attempts have been made to minimize or eliminate such bone loss. However, the timing and reason for this bone loss are not always apparent. The objective of this study was to review the evidence regarding marginal bone loss around dental implants from the standpoint of biologic consequences to help understand marginal bone changes around dental implants. One hypothesis for the bone loss around these implants was related to the presence of bacteria in the interfaces between the implant and abutment connections. The literature was reviewed regarding the three major types of implant-abutment crestal connections, including butt-joint, platform-switched, and no interface (tissue-level or one-body). This review article revealed that 1.5 to 2.0 mm of bone loss occurred around bone-level, butt-joint connections when the interface was created because the microgap was wide enough for penetration and colonization of bacteria, and that this bone loss was not observed around implants with no interface because they did not have a contaminated interface at the bone crest. Many studies have shown an advantage in the amount of marginal bone resorption for implants with a platform-switched connection, and there appears to be a significantly different biologic reaction. Recent publications indicate that such contaminated implant-abutment connections might have an effect on peri-implantitis and failure over time.
Keywords: alveolar bone loss, dental implant-abutment interface, dental implants, inflammation, platform switching, review literature