Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 33 (2018), No. 5 4. Oct. 2018
Purpose: This study retrospectively evaluated the effects of bone density, staging strategy, implant stability, healing process, implant length, surface type, and photofunctionalization on early implant failure.
Materials and Methods: Consecutive study samples at Yokohama City University Hospital were analyzed for their early implant failure potentially influenced by patient-, surgical protocol-, and implant-related factors. Through the screening process using univariate analysis for those factors, candidate influential factors such as bone density, staging strategy, the level of initial implant stability, postoperative wound breakdown, the length of implants, the surface type of implants, and use or nonuse of photofunctionalization were selected as independent variables in forward multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for candidate factors was calculated.
Results: A total of 563 implants placed in 219 patients from 2005 to 2017 were analyzed for their early implant failure. Stepwise logistic regression analysis finally identified postoperative wound breakdown (OR = 0.21) and the use of photofunctionalization (OR = 0.30) that significantly reduced the risk of early implant failure (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). The implant failure rate was 10.0% with postoperative wound breakdown and 1.0% without it, whereas it was 4.3% without photofunctionalization and 1.3% with it.
Conclusion: Among various patient-, surgical protocol-, and implant-related factors, the absence of postoperative wound breakdown and use of photofunctionalization significantly reduced the risk of early implant failure. It was notable that photofunctionalization, a unique, chairside measure to improve implant surfaces, was effective exclusively among implant-related factors.
Keywords: dental implant, early failure, osseointegration, photofunctionalization