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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 34 (2019), No. 3     28. May 2019
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 34 (2019), No. 3  (28.05.2019)

Page 752-758, doi:10.11607/jomi.6318, PubMed:30892292


Comparison of the Color Appearance of Peri-implant Soft Tissue with Natural Gingiva Using Anodized Pink-Neck Implants and Pink Abutments: A Prospective Clinical Trial
Gil, Mindy S. / Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi / Elani, Hawazin W. / Da Silva, John D. / Kim, David M. / Tarnow, Dennis / Schulze-Späte, Ulrike / Cleber, Silva / Bittner, Nurit
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the visual effects of pink-neck implants and pink abutments with respect to the color of natural gingiva. The distribution pattern and magnitude of CIELAB color difference coordinates were studied.
Materials and Methods: Forty subjects with a tooth in the maxillary esthetic zone deemed hopeless were recruited. Patients were randomized to either a conventional gray implant or a pink-neck implant. The hopeless tooth was removed, and patients received an immediate implant along with an immediate customized provisional prosthesis. The provisional was maintained for 3 months to allow for complete healing of the implants. Two identical computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments only differing in color (gray and pink) were fabricated along with an all-ceramic zirconia crown. The gray abutment was delivered first with a zirconia crown, and it was replaced with the pink abutment 3 weeks later. Three weeks after insertion of each abutment with the zirconia crown, a spectrophotometer was used to collect the color of the peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva, so the difference between the two sites could be calculated (ΔL* [difference in lightness], Δa* [difference in green-red axis], Δb* [difference in blue-yellow axis]). The natural gingiva measured was the gingiva of a contralateral or adjacent unrestored tooth. The effect of implant color and abutment on the color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was investigated with a linear regression model using a generalized estimating equation approach.
Results: Raw data demonstrated statistically insignificant smaller ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb* between peri-implant soft tissue and natural gingiva when the implant was pink vs gray. Further, there were statistically insignificant smaller ΔL* and Δb* between peri-implant soft tissue and natural gingiva when the abutment was pink vs gray. Δa* between peri-implant soft tissue and natural gingiva was significantly smaller when using a pink abutment regardless of the implant type (P < .05).
Conclusion: Using an anodized pink abutment and/or a pink-neck implant minimizes the color difference observed between the peri-implant mucosa and the natural gingiva in the redness spectrum. These advances in technology assist in helping the peri-implant mucosa appear more natural by minimizing the color variance.

Keywords: dental implant, flapless procedure, immediate placement, implant esthetics