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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 34 (2019), No. 3     28. May 2019
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 34 (2019), No. 3  (28.05.2019)

Page 595-603, doi:10.11607/jomi.7173, PubMed:30807625


A Critique of Resonance Frequency Analysis and a Novel Method for Quantifying Dental Implant Stability in Vitro
Khouja, Naseeba / Tai, Wei Che / Shen, I. Y. / Sorensen, John A.
Purpose: This study assessed the ability of resonance frequency measurements to differentiate the stability of implants with different lengths and diameters, and in different densities of bone. Another objective was to identify an alternative parameter capable of quantifying dental implant stability, thus facilitating greater sensitivity for efficacious detection of compromised or failing implants.
Materials and Methods: Implants of two different diameters (4 and 5 mm) and six different lengths were individually placed in synthetic bone blocks of three different densities (15, 40/20, and 40 pounds per cubic foot) in combination with two different abutments (short and tall) to evaluate their stability. Resonance frequency measurements were obtained via Osstell ISQ and experimental modal analysis. The resonance frequency measurements were further confirmed via finite element analysis using commercially available software ANSYS.
Results: Resonance frequencies measured via Osstell ISQ and experimental modal analysis did not change with respect to the length of the implants. The finite element analysis also confirmed the measured results. Finite element analysis simulations further indicated that angular stiffness at the neck of the implant (ie, the base of the abutment) varied considerably with respect to the implant length and diameter. Moreover, the calculated angular stiffness was independent of the type of abutment used.
Conclusion: The results obtained from resonance frequency analyses did not accurately represent dental implant stability. Changes to implant length and diameter did not affect resonance frequencies. In contrast, angular stiffness at the neck of the implant represented a superior index for quantifying dental implant stability. It not only successfully differentiated stability of implants of both varying lengths and diameters, but also produced quantitative data that were independent of the type of abutments used.

Keywords: angular stiffness, dental implant, experimental modal analysis, finite element analysis, natural frequency, stability