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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2     10. Mar. 2020
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2  (10.03.2020)

Page 386-394, doi:10.11607/jomi.7776, PubMed:32142576


Craniofacial Height in Relation to Cross-Sectional Morphology of the Anterior Maxilla: An Anatomical Consideration in Implant Therapy
Klinge, Anna / Ahmad, Marianne / Eldh, Peter / Ulvan, Rasmus / Andersson, Lars / Becktor, Jonas P.
Purpose: Patients who have a vertical growth pattern are more prone to complete alveolar bone growth later and run a higher risk for inhibition of growth and infraposition after implants have been placed. Moreover, it has been suggested for the same category of patients that craniofacial height may influence the alveolar bone morphology of the anterior maxilla during growth. Hence, it is important to identify such patients early when considering implant treatment in young patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the height and width of the alveolar bone in the anterior maxilla in subjects with different craniofacial heights to assess if there is a relation between craniofacial height and the dimensions of the alveolar bone in the anterior part of the maxilla.
Materials and Methods: Measurements on cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxilla from 180 fully dentate subjects were analyzed and categorized into three angle groups based on the craniofacial height: low-, normal-, and high-angle groups. Measurements of the alveolar bone were taken interradicular, at six reference points distributed between the first premolar regions in the maxilla. The height and width of the alveolar bone were measured with a standardized technique at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mm from the top of the alveolar process.
Results: Significant differences were found regarding the height of the alveolar bone in all the subgroups and regarding the width in the 9- and 12-mm subgroups, and between low-/normal- and low-/high-angle groups, where the high-angle group represented the thinnest alveolar bone. A significant difference was found between male and female patients concerning all dimensions of the alveolar bone.
Conclusion: There is a relation between craniofacial height and the dimensions of the alveolar bone in the anterior part of the maxilla. Craniofacial height is an important factor to analyze when implant treatment is considered in the maxillary anterior region. This identification can preferably be carried out early in young patients who are still growing when various treatment options can still be considered.

Keywords: 3D, alveolar bone height, alveolar bone width, craniofacial height, growth, radiology