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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2     10. Mar. 2020
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2  (10.03.2020)

Page 330-341, doi:10.11607/jomi.7541, PubMed:32142570


A Multilevel Analysis of Platform-Switching Flapless Implants Placed at Tissue Level: 4-year Prospective Cohort Study
Prati, Carlo / Zamparini, Fausto / Pirani, Chiara / Montebugnoli, Lucio / Canullo, Luigi / Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna
Purpose: To evaluate the factors affecting peri-implant marginal bone level of single platform-switched implants with a smooth neck placed at gingival level (tissue level) using a flapless technique.
Materials and Methods: Consecutive healthy patients requiring dental implant rehabilitations were enrolled in this study. Titanium implants with a zirconium-oxide–blasted surface and a platform-switch neck tulip configuration were used. Loading was performed 3 months after insertion with a provisional resin crown and after approximately 15 days with a definitive ceramic crown. Peri-implant marginal bone level (MBL) was measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months by a blinded assessor. The following parameters were evaluated: location (maxillary/mandibular), position (anterior/posterior), sex (male/female), smoke (yes/no), implant placement timing (immediate, early, delayed), gingival thickness (thin/thick), endodontically treated adjacent teeth (yes/no), and diameter (3.8/4.25/5.0 mm). Multilevel analyses exploring factors associated with MBL at 36 and 48 months were performed.
Results: A total of 76 patients (42 women, 34 men; mean age: 55.6 ± 10.7 years) received 128 implant rehabilitations. The survival rate was 98.4%. MBL displayed an initial increase during the first months from insertion (preload period). Cumulative mean MBL at T48 was 0.99 ± 0.68, which was not statistically significant from the values at T24 to T36 (P > .05). Mandibular location, delayed implants, and presence of adjacent endodontically treated teeth showed higher bone loss at 36 months (P < .05). Interestingly, at 48 months, only implant placement timing showed statistically significant differences. Delayed implants showed increased bone loss compared with both early and immediate groups (P < .05). Multilevel analysis confirmed the statistical significance of implant location (P = .031; 95% CI: 0.031 to 0.659), endodontically treated adjacent teeth (P = .001; 95% CI: –1.228 to 0.859), and implant placement (P = .045; 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.337) as factors affecting MBL at 36 months. All the investigated parameters, with the only exception being the implant placement group (P = .020; 95% CI: 0.334 to 1.432), were not statistically significant at 48 months (P > .05).
Conclusion: Platform-switched implants placed nonsubmerged with a flapless approach showed a reduced bone loss progression in the first 4 years, as MBL remained stable at longer times (36 and 48 months). Implants placed with early and immediate timing showed reduced bone loss compared with delayed implants.

Keywords: best clinical practice, dental implants, flapless surgery, MBL, platform-switch