Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 23 (2008), No. 6 15. Nov. 2008
Purpose: To investigate postextraction bone formation over time in both diseased and healthy sockets.
Materials and Methods: Core specimens of healing tissues following tooth extraction were obtained at the time of implant placement in patients treated between October 2005 and December 2007. A disease group and a control group were classified according to socket examination at the time of extraction. The biopsy specimens were analyzed histomorphometrically to measure the dimensional changes among 3 tissue types: epithelial layer, connective tissue area, and new bone tissue area.
Results: Fifty-five specimens from sites of previously advanced periodontal disease from 45 patients were included in the disease group. Another 12 specimens of previously healthy extraction sockets were collected from 12 different patients as a control. The postextraction period of the disease group varied from 2 to 42 weeks. In the disease group, connective tissue occupied most of the socket during the first 4 weeks. New bone area progressively replaced the connective tissue area after the first 4 weeks. The area proportion of new bone tissue exceeded that of connective tissue by 14 weeks. After 20 weeks, most extraction sockets in the disease group demonstrated continuous new bone formation. The control group exhibited almost complete socket healing after 10 weeks, with no more new bone formation after 20 weeks.
Conclusions: Osseous regeneration in the diseased sockets developed more slowly than in the disease-free sockets. After 16 weeks, new bone area exceeded 50% of the total newly regenerated tissue in the sockets with severe periodontal destruction. In the control group, after 8 weeks, new bone area exceeded 50% of the total tissue.
Keywords: advanced periodontal disease, bone formation, coronal corticalization, extraction socket healing, timing of implantation