Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 23 (2008), No. 5 15. Sep. 2008
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical success and bone healing of implants placed in fresh extraction sockets using a flapless procedure compared to those placed with flap elevation.
Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth in 20 patients were selected for this study and were scheduled for tooth extraction and immediate implant placement. Ten implants were placed with flap elevation (control group), and 10 implants were placed without flap elevation (test group). All the sites selected showed a complete bone defect at the facial wall. All the implants included in this study were 2-stage implants placed at the level of palatal/lingual bone in augmented bone. Each surgical site was protected with a collagen membrane and, subsequently, a standardized radiograph was taken to evaluate the distance between the implant shoulder and the first bone-implant contact (DIB). Six months after placement, both control and test implants underwent a second-stage surgery and a clinical examination to determine the implant stability quotient, DIB, and the distance between implant shoulder and the crestal bone at the midbuccal aspect (DIC).
Results: One implant failed in the test group. Only 1 implant (test group) showed bone growth over the implant neck at the re-entry procedure. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) and DIB did not show any significant differences between the control and test group; however, a higher DIC was found in the test sites compared to the control sites.
Conclusion: Data from this study showed that immediate implants with and without a mucoperiosteal flap elevation can be successfully used even in the presence of bone defects requiring augmentation procedures. It was also noted that the bone regenerated reached a higher coronal level in the group with flap elevation than in the group without flap elevation.
Keywords: biomaterial, bone defect, dental implants, extraction sockets, mucoperiosteal flap