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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 23 (2008), No. 3     15. May 2008
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 23 (2008), No. 3  (15.05.2008)

Page 427-436, PubMed:18700364

Healing of Critical-Size Cranial Defects in Guinea Pigs Using a Bovine Bone-Derived Resorbable Membrane
Taga, Márcio Luiz de Lima / Granjeiro, José Mauro / Cestari, Tania Mary / Taga, Rumio
Purpose: To investigate the healing of critical-size cranial bone defects (9-mm-diameter) in guinea pigs treated with a bovine bone-derived resorbable membrane.
Materials and Methods: A sample of 42 guinea pigs was divided into test (n = 20), control (n = 20), and standard (n = 2) groups. A full-thickness trephine defect was made in the fronto-parietal bone of each animal. In the test group, the internal and external openings of the defect were each closed with a separate membrane, and the space between them was filled with blood clot and a central spacer. In the control group, the defect was filled only with the blood clot and spacer. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months later, the calvarias (5 per period) for both the test and control groups were collected, fixed, radiographed, and histologically processed. The standard-group animals were sacrificed immediately after surgery and used to determine the initial size of defect radiographically. The areas of defects in the radiographs were measured with image-analysis software and were compared between groups and periods by multiple regression analysis with the Bonferroni correction.
Results: At 1 and 3 months, newly formed woven bone was histologically observed in both test and control groups. Radiographically, this new bone occupied an average of 32% of the defect area at 1 month and 60% at 3 months in the test group. In the control group, 21% of the defect was filled at 1 month and 39% at 3 months. However, the differences between treatments were not statistically significant (P > .05). At 6 and 9 months, a significant increase in newly formed lamellar bone was seen histologically in both groups. Radiographically, for the test group, the new bone occupied an average of 82% of the defect area at 6 months and 96% at 9 months. For the control group, new bone composed an average of 45% of the defect area at 6 months and 40% at 9 months. The differences between the test and control groups were statistically significant at 6 and 9 months (P < .05). Complete or almost complete filling of the defect was observed in several cases.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the bovine bone-derived membrane is highly biocompatible and is able to promote good healing of critical-size defects in calvaria of guinea pig.

Keywords: calvaria, collagen, critical-size bone defect, guided bone regeneration, membrane, xenograft