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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22 (2007), No. 4     15. July 2007
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22 (2007), No. 4  (15.07.2007)

Page 551-562, PubMed:17929515


Comparison of Implant Body Designs and Threaded Designs of Dental Implants: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Huang, Heng-Li / Chang, Chin-Han / Hsu, Jui-Ting / Fallgatter, Alison M. / Ko, Ching-Chang
Purpose: Stress analysis was performed for various implant designs using 3-dimensional finite element analysis approaches.
Materials and Methods: Six implant designs were included: 3 parallel-sided implants (no thread, triangular thread, and squared thread), 2 stepped configurations (nonthread and triangular thread), and a tapered body of implant with squared thread. All threads had spiral characteristics. The mandibular model was constructed from computed tomographic (CT) images of a human mandible, and the material properties were anisotropic (different in different directions). A 100-N oblique force was applied at a 45-degree angle to the long axis of the implants at the buccal cusp as the loading condition.
Results: Compared with cylindric implants, threaded implants (either triangular or squared) demonstrated increased peak stress at the crestal bone. The bone stress of stepped implants was decreased in the cortical region but was increased in the trabecular region. However, both threaded and stepped designs showed decreased interfacial stresses of bone near the valleys of the threaded and stepped areas. The tapered design decreased stresses by up to 32% in the cortical region and 17% in the trabecular region.
Conclusions: Although threaded implants could not decrease the peak stress at the crestal bone, both threaded and stepped designs show an ability to dissipate the interfacial stresses of bone. The use of tapered implants could reduce peak stress in both cortical and trabecular bone.

Keywords: finite element analysis, implant designs, threads