Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 1 15. Jan. 2009
Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress.
Materials and Methods: ITI solid-screw implants, 10 mm in length and 3.3, 4.1, and 4.8 mm in diameter, and the alveolar bone were modeled using axisymmetric finite elements. Four different alveolar ridge geometries were selected for each implant: 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-mm-wide ridges for the 3.3-mm implants; 6-, 7-, 8-, and 9-mm-wide ridges for the 4.1-mm implants; and 7-, 8-, 9-, and 10-mm-wide ridges for the 4.8-mm implants. A nonaxial oblique load of 100 N was applied at 30 degrees to the implant axis. Regression analysis was used to avoid ambiguity when estimating the peak stress occurring at the coronal contact point between the implant and the crestal bone, ie, the singularity point.
Results: Peak stresses were dependent on both implant diameter and alveolar ridge width. Substantially lower stresses were recorded around the implants placed in narrower ridges.
Conclusion: A regression analysis may be used to quantify the peak stress at the singularity point. An implant with a diameter that is at least half the ridge width is recommended to reduce the stress concentration in the crestal bone.
Keywords: alveolar ridge width, crestal bone stress, finite element simulation, implant diameter, stress singularity, structural rigidity