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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 3     19. June 2009
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 3  (19.06.2009)

Page 469-476, PubMed:19587869


Comparison of Torque Measurements and Clinical Handling of Various Surgical Motors
Neugebauer, Jörg / Scheer, Martin / Mischkowski, Robert A. / An, Sang-Ho / Karapetian, Viktor E. / Toutenburg, Helge / Zoeller, Joachim E.
Purpose: Modern implant dentistry requires the application of torque during various treatment steps. This study investigated seven different surgical motors for the accuracy of the applied torque and their reliability.
Materials and Methods: The following surgical motors were evaluated: Chiropro 980 (Bienair), INTRAsurg 300 and INTRAsurg 500 (KaVo), Osseocare (Nobel Biocare), Surgic XT (NSK), Elcomed SA-200 C (W&H), and Osseo System (XO Dentalcare). The torque was measured during typical surgical and prosthetic procedures using a special load transfer mechanism for a torque gauge. For each setting, 30 measurements were made and means were calculated.
Results: The highest percentage shortfall was 20.5% at a set torque of 11.4 Ncm (absolute deviation of -2.4 Ncm). The highest percentage by which a torque was exceeded was 54.6% (absolute deviation of 5.5 Ncm). The lowest value for absolute shortfall was found to be -5.6 Ncm at a set torque of 45 Ncm. The highest absolute exceeded was 15 Ncm at a set torque of 40 Ncm. Potentially problematic torque values were identified in the low-torque-value setting, as the implant position may be changed if a machine driver applies excessive torque to the firststage healing screw. In addition, in the indication of immediate loading in the high-set-torque group, torque values above the critical value of 50 Ncm may be unwittingly applied while working with a set torque of 40 Ncm.
Conclusion: For most of the clinically relevant torque settings, precise values were measured, although a few devices delivered potentially problematic torque values for some of the indications.

Keywords: analysis of variance, dental equipment, dental implants, immediate loading, prosthetic complications, reproducibility of results, torque controller