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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 21 (2006), No. 4     15. July 2006
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 21 (2006), No. 4  (15.07.2006)

Page 551-559, PubMed:16955605

Healing in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers: Survival Rates for Sinus Floor Augmentation with Simultaneous Implant Placement
Peleg, Michael / Garg, Arun K. / Mazor, Ziv
Purpose: Evidence suggests that smoking is detrimental to the survival of dental implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses. Studies have shown that improving bone quantity and quality, using rough-surfaced implants, and practicing good oral hygiene may improve outcomes. In this prospective study, the long-term survival rates of implants placed simultaneously with sinus grafting in smokers and nonsmokers were compared.
Materials and Methods: Implants with roughened surfaces were immediately placed into maxillary sinus grafts in patients with 1 to 7 mm of residual bone. A total of 2,132 simultaneous implants were placed into the grafted sinuses of 226 smokers (627 implants) and 505 nonsmokers (1,505 implants). A majority of the patients received a composite graft consisting of 50% autogenous bone. In both smokers and nonsmokers, approximately two thirds of the implants had microtextured surfaces; the remainder had hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces. The implants were restored and monitored during clinical follow-up for up to 9 years.
Results: Cumulative survival of implants at 9 years was 97.9%. There were no statistically significant differences in implant failure rates between smokers and nonsmokers.
Discussion: Implant survival was believed to depend on the following aspects of the technique used: creation of a large buccal window to allow access to a large recipient site; use of composite grafts consisting of at least 50% autogenous bone; meticulous bone condensation; placement of long implants (ie, 15 mm); use of implants with hydroxyapatite-coated or microtextured surfaces; use of a membrane to cover the graft and implants; antibiotic use and strict oral hygiene; use of interim implants and restricted use of dentures; and adherence to a smoking cessation protocol. (Comparative Cohort Study)

Keywords: dental implants, sinus floor augmentation, smoking