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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20 (2005), No. 6     15. Nov. 2005
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20 (2005), No. 6  (15.11.2005)

Page 875-881

In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage Along the Implant-Abutment Interface of Different Implant Systems
Steinebrunner, Lars / Wolfart, Stefan / Bößmann, Klaus / Kern, Matthias
Purpose: Microbial leakage and colonization between implants and their abutments may cause inflammatory reactions in the peri-implant tissues. This study evaluated microbial leakage at the implant-abutment interface with a new in vitro model.
Materials and Methods: Bacterial leakage was tested during dynamic loading in a 2-axis chewing simulator. The authors theorized that dynamic loading would decrease the stability of the implant-abutment connections and thereby lead to bacterial penetration along the gap. Five different implant systems with 8 standard implant-abutment combinations for single molar crowns were tested. The internal aspects of the implants were inoculated with a bacterial suspension and connected to the superstructure with the recommended torque. The specimens were immersed in a nutrient solution and loaded with 1,200,000 cycles of 120 N in the chewing simulator.
Results: Statistically significant differences (P <= .05) between implant systems with respect to number of chewing cycles until bacterial penetration were found.
Discussion: The degree of penetration in a specific implant system presumably is a multifactorial condition dependent on the precision of fit between the implant and the abutment, the degree of micromovement between the components, and the torque forces used to connect them.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the newly developed test model is a sensitive tool for the detection of differences between current implant systems with respect to their ability to prevent bacterial penetration at the implant-abutment interface under dynamic loading conditions.

Keywords: abutments, bacterial leakage, chewing simulation, dental implants