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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 18 (2003), No. 6     15. Nov. 2003
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 18 (2003), No. 6  (15.11.2003)

Page 856-864

Four-year Follow-up of Larger-Diameter Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets Using a Resorbable Membrane or a Resorbable Alloplastic Material
Prosper, Loris / Gherlone, Enrico F. / Redaelli, Sara / Quaranta, Manlio
Purpose: The aim of this randomized study was to evaluate and compare the long-term success rates of cylindric, screw-type titanium implants with a larger diameter (5.9 mm) that were placed in fresh extraction sockets in association with resorbable bone substitutes or a resorbable membrane.
Materials and Methods: Eighty-three partially edentulous adult patients, selected from among those treated in 1997 and 1998 at the San Raffaele Institute in whom 1 or more implants had been placed into fresh posterior mandibular or maxillary sockets, were included in the study. A total of 111 implants were placed, 36 in mandibles and 75 in maxillae. Fifty-six implants were placed in combination with resorbable hydroxyapatite (HA group) and 55 with a resorbable membrane (MR group). Intraoral radiographs and follow-up examinations, including verification of implant stability via the Periotest, were carried out at secondstage surgery 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later; and then annually up to 4 years after placement of the definitive restoration. The radiographic examination was conducted by means of a standardized procedure to verify osseointegration.
Results: There was 100% attendance at the follow-up examination after 4 years. At second-stage surgery, which was performed after 4 to 6 months' healing time, none of the implants showed any signs of mobility, peri-implantitis, or bone loss. Two implants failed in the MR group, one at 3 months and one at 9 months after placement; 1 implant failed in the HA group at 4 months after placement. After 4 years, the implant success rate was 97.3% (108 of 111 implants were considered successful). The success rate did not differ significantly between the HA group (98.2%) and the MR group (96.4%).
Discussion: The use of larger-diameter implants served to minimize the anatomic discrepancies that would have evolved when substituting a molar with a standard-diameter implant. According to the accepted criteria for success, the 5-year success rate should be at least 85%; therefore both methods may be considered satisfactory.
Conclusion: Implants placed in combination with a resorbable allogeneic material or with a resorbable membrane provided predictable long-term results when restored with a fixed partial denture.