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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 5     30. Oct. 2009
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 5  (30.10.2009)

Page 831-841, PubMed:19865623

Biomechanical Properties of Jaw Periosteum-Derived Mineralized Culture on Different Titanium Topography
Att, Wael / Kubo, Katsutoshi / Yamada, Masahiro / Maeda, Hatsuhiko / Ogawa, Takahiro
Purpose: This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different surface topographies of titanium.
Materials and Methods: Titanium surfaces modified by machining or by acid etching were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rat mandibular periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either of the titanium surfaces. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counts, and gene expression was analyzed using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain assay was employed to evaluate osteoblastic activity. Matrix mineralization was examined via von Kossa stain assay, total calcium deposition, and SEM. The hardness and elastic modulus of mineralized cultures were measured using a nano-indenter.
Results: The machined surface demonstrated a flat topographic configuration, while the acid-etched surface revealed a uniform micron-scale roughness. Both cell density and ALP activity were significantly higher on the machined surface than on the acid-etched surface. The expression of bone-related genes was up-regulated or enhanced on the acid-etched surface compared to the machined surface. Von Kossa stain showed significantly greater positive areas for the machined surface compared to the acid-etched surface, while total calcium deposition was statistically similar. Mineralized culture on the acid-etched surface was characterized by denser calcium deposition, more mature collagen deposition on the superficial layer, and larger and denser globular matrices inside the matrix than the culture on the machined surface. The mineralized matrix on the acid-etched surface was two times harder than on the machined surface, whereas the elastic modulus was comparable between the two surfaces.
Conclusions: The design of this study can be used as a model to evaluate the effect of implant surface topography on the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture. The results suggest that mandibular periosteal cells respond to different titanium surface topographies differently enough to produce mineralized matrices with different biomechanical qualities.

Keywords: acid etching, machined surface, mineralized tissue, periosteal cells, titanium