Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24 (2009), No. 6 17. Dec. 2009
Purpose: To investigate the method and conditions of isolation and proliferation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human maxillary sinus membrane in vitro and to induce osteogenic differentiation directly for identification.
Materials and Methods: A human maxillary sinus membrane specimen was collected in aseptic conditions from an orthognathic surgery patient and cultured. The cells at passage three were sorted by flow cytometry and treated with osteogenic differentiation media. To determine the osteogenic potential of these cells, the authors analyzed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, mineralization of extracellular matrix, and osteocalcin expression; staining with alizarin red and von Kossa and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were also performed.
Results: Maxillary sinus membrane-derived cells were positive for STRO-1 and CD105 and negative for CD34. After 7 days, ALP began to be expressed. After 21 and 28 days, most cells showed expression of ALP. Mineralization of the extracelluar matrix was observed and, after 21 and 28 days, most of the cells showed mineralization. After 7 days, the osteocalcin gene was expressed; this expression was strongest on the 28th day.
Conclusions: The results suggest that there are MSCs in human maxillary sinus membrane tissue, which can be differentiated into osteoblasts under osteogenic induction. This indicates that maxillary sinus membrane may be a useful source of MSCs for cell therapy.
Keywords: adult stem cells, maxillary sinus membrane, osteogenic differentiation