Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17 (2002), No. 3 15. June 2002
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17 (2002), No. 3 (15.06.2002)
The Influence of Controlled Occlusal Overload on Peri-implant Tissue. Part 4: A Histologic Study in Monkeys
Miyata, Takashi / Kobayashi, Yukinao / Araki, Hisao / Ohto, Takaichi / Shin, Kitetsu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe, after removing occlusal trauma and conducting plaque control, possible macroscopic and histologic changes in peri-implant tissue that had deteriorated resulting from experimental peri-implantitis, and to investigate the necessity for treatment procedures for peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods: Four monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in good general health were used in this experiment. Three months after the second premolar and the first molar were extracted from the right mandible, 2 IMZ experimental implants were placed in each monkey. After a 3-month osseointegration period, a second surgery was conducted, followed by making an impression for fabrication of the prosthesis. Excessive occlusal height of the prosthesis was adjusted to 250µm, and the experiment was continued for 8 weeks after placement of the prosthesis. Three models were created: (1) A superstructure with an excessive occlusal height was used for 8 weeks without any brushing (positive control, model P); (2) after the first 4 weeks with a prosthesis with excessive occlusal height and no brushing, the superstructure was removed and not used for the last 4 weeks while brushing was conducted (experimental model, model E); and (3) for 8 weeks, a prosthesis with an appropriate occlusal height was used with brushing (negative control, model N). Results: When these 3 models were compared with each other, macroscopic findings indicated inflammation only in model P. Mobility of implants was not seen in any model. Histopathologic observations revealed a slight difference between model E and model P in terms of the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in the connective tissue. Discussion: No difference was found in the degree of bone resorption. Partial tearing was observed at the contact region between epithelial tissue and implant surfaces. Conclusions: (1) The contact between implants and epithelial or connective tissue is fragile; (2) inflammation and occlusion must be controlled more prudently than in the case of natural teeth; and (3) once periimplantitis has progressed, the control of occlusion and inflammation is probably not sufficient to promote the healing mechanism.