Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 16 (2001), No. 3 15. June 2001
The attachment of cells to titanium surfaces is an important phenomenon in the area of clinical implant dentistry. A major consideration in designing implants has been to produce surfaces that promote desirable responses in the cells and tissues. To achieve these requirements, the titanium implant surface can be modified in various ways. This research was designed to elucidate the relationship between surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (Ø) of various engineered titanium surfaces of commercially pure titanium, titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and titanium-nickel (TiNi) alloy. The contact angle was measured using distilled water, 1% sodium chloride solution, human neutrophils, and osteoblast-like cells. Surface oxide crystallography was identified by transmission electron diffraction. It was found that: (1) there were no significant differences in contact angles among the 4 media; (2) for commercially pure titanium, a combined treatment (hydrofluoric acid/nitric acid/water sodium hydroxide oxidation) showed the lowest Ø (10.51 degrees in water), while the surface treated with sulfuric acid showed the highest value (72.99 degrees in water); (3) for all commercially pure titanium samples, when Ø is greater than 45 degrees, the contact angle increases linearly with Ra (hydrophobic nature) and the surface is covered with rutile-type oxide only, while the contact angle decreases linearly with Ra when Ø is less than 45 degrees (hydrophilic nature) and the surface is covered with a mixture of rutile and anatase oxides; and (4) a similar trend was found on Ti-6Al-4V and TiNi surfaces.