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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 16 (2001), No. 4     15. Aug. 2001
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 16 (2001), No. 4  (15.08.2001)

Page 514-521

Spontaneous Early Exposure of Submerged Endosseous Implants Resulting in Crestal Bone Loss: A Clinical Evaluation Between Stage I and Stage II Surgery
Tal, Haim / Artzi, Zvi / Moses, Ofer / Nemcovsky, Carlos E. / Kozlovsky, Avital
Spontaneous early exposure of submerged implants during the osseointegration healing phase may be a harmful factor that results in early crestal bone loss around the implants. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of spontaneous early exposure on crestal bone loss around submerged implants, with special attention given to the relationship between the degree of exposure and the amount of peri-implant bone loss. Crestal bone level relative to the shoulder of the implant was measured at the time of placement and at the time of exposure 4 to 5 months later. During the period between stage I and stage II surgery, implant sites were observed, and each implant site in which spontaneous early exposure was detected was recorded. Perforations were classified according to the degree of implant exposure from Class 0 (no perforation) to Class IV (complete exposure). Measurements from 206 implants in 64 patients produced 85 groups valid for statistical comparison; each of these contained at least 2 lesions of different types. There was a statistically significant difference between bone loss associated with intact mucosa (Class 0) and Class I, Class II, and Class III lesions, and between Class I and II lesions. There were no significant differences between Class I and III and between Class II and III. In Class II and III lesions, there was more bone loss associated with the buccal aspect of the implants. Of the 115 perforated sites, 10 were associated with bone loss exceeding 2 mm, 2 presented 3 to 4 mm bone loss, 1 showed more than 4 mm, and 1 displayed more than 5 mm. In view of the clinical implications that spontaneous early exposure may have on the success of osseointegration, prematurely partially exposed implants should be exposed as soon as possible after the perforation is observed.

Keywords: bone loss, dental implants, early implant exposure, gingival perforation