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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 15 (2000), No. 6     15. Dec. 2000
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 15 (2000), No. 6  (15.12.2000)

Page 779-784

Surface Analysis of Machined Versus Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Titanium Implants
Orsini, Giovanna / Assenza, Bartolomeo / Scarano, Antonio / Piattelli, Maurizio / Piattelli, Adriano
Initially, implant surface analyses were performed on 10 machined implants and on 10 sandblasted and acid-etched implants. Subsequently, sandblasted and acid-etched implant cytotoxicity (using L929 mouse fibroblasts), morphologic differences between cells (osteoblast-like cells MG63) adhering to the machined implant surfaces, and cell anchorage to sandblasted and acid-etched implant surfaces were evaluated. Results indicated that acid etching with 1% hydrofluoric acid/30% nitric acid after sandblasting eliminated residual alumina particles. The average roughness (Ra) of sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces was about 2.15 ìm. Cytotoxicity tests showed that sandblasted and acid-etched implants had non-cytotoxic cellular effects and appeared to be biocompatible. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed that the surface roughness produced by sandblasting and acid etching could affect cell adhesion mechanisms. Osteoblast-like cells adhering to the machined implants presented a very flat configuration, while the same cells adhering to the sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces showed an irregular morphology and many pseudopodi. These morphologic irregularities could improve initial cell anchorage, providing better osseointegration for sandblasted and acid-etched implants.

Keywords: acid etching, cellular morphology, dental implants, immunologic cytotoxicity tests, surface properties