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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 14 (1999), No. 4     15. Aug. 1999
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 14 (1999), No. 4  (15.08.1999)

Page 473-490

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for Biologic Complications and Failing Oral Implants: A Review of the Literature
Esposito, Marco / Hirsch, Jan / Lekholm, Ulf / Thomsen, Peter
The aim of this article was to review the literature on differential diagnosis and treatment of biologic complications and failing implants. All types of publications, with the exception of abstracts, published in English up to December 1998, were included. A multi-layered search strategy was used. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were searched in the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Specialized Register of Trials. This database contains all CCTs identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE. PubMed was searched using various key words and the "related articles" feature. All identified publications were obtained and none were excluded. Infection, impaired healing, and overload are considered the major etiologic factors for the loss of oral implants. Only a few clinical and animal investigations were found that tested the validity of the proposed therapeutic approaches. The treatment of failing implants is still based mainly on empirical considerations, often derived from periodontal research, from data extrapolated from in vitro findings, or from anecdotal case reports performed on a trial-and-error basis.

Keywords: complication, dental implant, evidence-based treatment, failing implants, guided bone regeneration, infection, peri-implantitis, therapy