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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 13 (1998), No. 1     15. Feb. 1998
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 13 (1998), No. 1  (15.02.1998)

Page 17-29


Generalizations Regarding the Process and Phenomenon of Osseointegration. Part I. In Vivo Studies
Masuda, Takayuki / Yliheikkilä, Paula K. / Felton, David A. / Cooper, Lyndon F.
The clinical success of endosseous implants is associated with the formation and maintenance of bone at implant surfaces. Histologic analyses have indicated that bone formation at a variety of implant surfaces is a continuous process that supports long-term functional integration. Based on in vivo observations, several generalizations have been derived regarding the nature of the interface. Experimental descriptions indicate that the implant-bone interface may be characterized in spatial and temporal terms as discontinuous. Biomechanical tests of the bone associations with implants demonstrate that the chemical composition and the surface topography of the implant influence the rate and extent of bone formation at implant surfaces. The precise character and functional attributes of this interface are the focus of this investigation. Many technical difficulties are associated with its structural and chemical characterization in vivo. Despite the technically difficult nature of this type of analysis and the limitations of current histologic examinations and biomechanical tests, in vivo models of osseointegration are necessary experimental tools for the continued empirical development of clinical implant applications.

Keywords: dental implant, histology, interface, osseointegration, osteoblast, review