Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 13 (1998), No. 1 15. Feb. 1998
The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine maximum and functional forces simultaneously in three dimensions on mandibular implants supporting overdentures. The anchorage system for overdenture connection was the ball-shaped retentive anchor. Five edentulous patients, each with two mandibular ITI implants, were selected as test subjects. A novel miniaturized piezo-electric force transducer was developed for specific use with ITI implants. Force magnitudes and directions were registered under various test conditions by means of electrostatic plotter records. The test modalities were maximum biting in centric occlusion, maximum biting on a bite plate, grinding, and chewing bread. Maximum forces measured in centric occlusion and on the ipsilateral implant when using a bite plate were slightly increased in vertical and backward-forward dimension (z-, y-axis) compared to the lateral-medial direction (x-axis). On the contralateral implant, equally low values were found in all three dimensions. This may be the effect of a nonsplinted anchorage device. With the use of a bite plate, force magnitudes on the ipsilateral implant were significantly higher on the z- and y-axis than mean maximum forces in centric occlusion (P < .001). Chewing and grinding resulted in lower forces compared to maximum biting, particularly in the vertical direction. The transverse force component in backward-forward direction, however, reached magnitudes that exceeded the vertical component by 100% to 300% during chewing function. This chewing pattern had not been observed in previous investigations with bars and telescopes, and therefore appears to be specific for retentive ball anchors. The prevalent or exclusive force direction registered on both implants in the vertical direction was downward under all test conditions. In the transverse direction during maximum biting the forward direction was more frequently registered, while no obvious prevalence of transverse force direction was observed during chewing and grinding.
Keywords: mandibular implants, overdentures, retentive ball anchors, three-dimensional force measurements