Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 13 (1998), No. 3 15. June 1998
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 13 (1998), No. 3 (15.06.1998)
Bone Response to Functioning Implants in Dog Mandibular Alveolar Ridges Augmented with Distraction Osteogenesis
Block, Michael S. / Almerico, Ben / Crawford, Craig / Gardiner, Diana / Chang, Andrew
The specific aim of this study was to determine the response of alveolar bone after it was augmented vertically using distraction osteogenesis and subsequently loaded with implant restorations. Four dogs each had four implants placed horizontally into an edentulous mandibular quadrant and, after integration, a distraction osteogenesis device was fabricated in the laboratory. An osteotomy was made to allow the crest of the alveolar ridge to be distracted vertically. After 10 mm of vertical distraction, the device was stabilized with light cured resin. Following bone fill confirmation of the distraction gap at 10 weeks, two implants were placed into the ridges, one in distracted bone and one in nondistracted bone. After 4 months for implant integration, freestanding prostheses were fabricated. Crestal bone levels were evaluated throughout the period of function. Animals were sacrificed after 1 year of loading, for histologic evaluation of the bone. The vertical ridge augmentation averaged 8.85 ± 1.05 mm after 10 weeks of healing following distraction, without change over 1 year of implant loading. Histologic examination showed that bone had formed between the distracted segments, creating an augmented ridge. The average thickness of the labial cortex in the distraction gap was significantly thinner than the lingual cortex in distracted bone and the lingual and labial nondistracted cortical bone. The presence of the dental implant did not significantly affect cortical bone thickness. Serial sections showed that implants remained integrated and functional without soft tissue inflammation. Dental implants placed into alveolar ridges augmented with the technique of distraction osteogenesis maintained bone and were functional for the length of this study.
Keywords: alveolar ridge augmentation, distraction osteogenesis, implant restorations