Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 26 (2011), No. 3 15. June 2011
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular activities of MG63 osteoblast-like cells on modified titanium surfaces.
Materials and Methods: MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on titanium disks (n = 20 in each group) with turned, resorbable blast media (RBM)--treated, or anodized surfaces. The surfaces of commercially available implants of Osstem (Osstem Implant) were reproduced for the titanium disks. The morphology of cells cultured on these disks was examined using scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed for the analysis of surface chemistry. Specimens were also evaluated with an initial cell adhesion assay to compare initial adhesion, with a methyl tetrazol sulfate (MTS) assay to compare the proliferation ability, and with an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay to compare the differentiation ability. Statistical significance of the differences was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test for the cell adhesion assay and analysis of variance for the MTS and ALP assays.
Results: Attached cells with more defined lamellopodia and flattened morphology were observed on the anodized and RBM surfaces than on the turned surfaces. The titanium surfaces were all oxidized as titanium oxide and polluted by carbon determinants, as determined by XPS. Anodized titanium surfaces exhibited calcium and phosphorus peaks. Initial cell attachment activity, cell proliferation activity, and ALP activity were higher on the anodized surfaces than on the other surfaces. Cell differentiation on the anodized surfaces at culture day 10 was significantly higher (P < .05) than on the other surfaces.
Conclusions: Surface treatment by anodization may improve initial attachment of cells, proliferation ability, and differentiation activity, which play important roles in providing better osseointegration of implants. More rapid and stronger osseointegration of implants may make it possible to offer the best anchorage and shorten the healing time required prior to functional loading.
Keywords: dental implants, surface properties, titanium, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy