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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 26 (2011), No. 3     15. June 2011
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 26 (2011), No. 3  (15.06.2011)

Page 509-519, PubMed:21691597

Attachment and Proliferation of Human Osteoblast-like Cells on Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Membranes in the Absence or Presence of Nicotine: An In Vitro Study
Papaioannou, Konstantinos A. / Markopoulou, Cleopatra E. / Gioni, Vassiliki / Mamalis, Anastasios A. / Vavouraki, Helen N. / Kletsas, Dimitris / Vrotsos, Ioannis A.
Purpose: To compare in vitro the attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) on tissue culture plates and guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes in the absence or presence of nicotine.
Materials and Methods: Membrane samples were fixed to wells and the cell number (CN) was counted after 24 hours (attachment assay) or 5 days (proliferation assay). The ratio of cell count (RCC) (CN at 5 days/CN at 24 hours) was calculated. The study had three parts: First, five different resorbable GBR membranes were compared (Resolut Adapt LT [RALT], Biocollagen [BC], Bio-Gide [BG], OsseoGuard [OG], and Demokritos Human Tissue Bank [DEM]). Next, cells were cultured on tissue culture plates with five different concentrations of nicotine. Finally, cells were cultured on the membrane that had demonstrated the highest RCC and CN in part 1 with four different concentrations of nicotine.
Results: At 24 hours, BG showed the highest CN and OG showed the lowest CN. At 5 days, BG showed the highest CN. The order of RCC was BG > OG > DEM > RALT ~ BC. At 24 hours, lower nicotine concentrations (0.3 and 3 µg/mL) showed higher CNs versus the control, whereas CNs for high nicotine concentrations (30 and 300 µg/mL) were lower than for the control. CN at 5 days and RCC were lowest with 300 µg/mL nicotine. At 24 hours and 5 days, all differences among wells with membrane were statistically insignificant. Nevertheless, CN at 5 days and RCC were highest with the lowest nicotine concentration (3 µg/mL) and lowest with high concentrations.
Conclusions: Membrane materials influence attachment and proliferation of bone cells and, therefore, could affect the outcomes of GBR. On both tissue culture plates and membranes, there is a tendency toward a biphasic effect of nicotine, with stimulatory effects at low concentrations and inhibitory effects at high concentrations.

Keywords: cell attachment, cell proliferation, guided bone regeneration, membrane, nicotine, osteoblast