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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 7 (1992), No. 2     1. June 1992
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 7 (1992), No. 2  (01.06.1992)

Page 151-160

Visualization and Initial Characterization of the Titanium Boundary of the Bone-Implant Interface of Osseointegrated Implants
Budd, Thomas W. / Nagahara, Kuniteru / Bielat, Kenneth L. / Meenaghan, Michael A. / Schaaf, Norman G.
A simple procedure has allowed consistent visualization of the titanium boundary of the bone-implant interface of osseointegrated titanium implants at the electron microscope level. This was accomplished by embedding the intact bone-implant specimen block with low-viscosity resin prior to removal of the device in preparation for sectioning. The titanium boundary consisted of either a thin, compact amorphous electron dense layer, a broad layer of dense amorphous granules, or both. This material was removed by decalcification in formic acid (prior to embedding) and did not diffract electrons (ie, was noncrystalline). Scanning-transmission electron microscopy-EDX analysis indicated the presence of titanium, calcium, and phosphorus in the electron dense material. Field emission scanning electron microscopy-EDX dot-mapping analysis confirmed the presence of these elements and mapped them to the same locations at the implant-interface boundary.

Keywords: healing, implants, interface, osseointegration, titanium