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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 11 (1996), No. 4     1. July 1996
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 11 (1996), No. 4  (01.07.1996)

Page 435-442

Surface Characterization of Radio-Frequency Glow Discharged and Autoclaved Titanium Surfaces
Kawahara, Dai / Ong, Joo L. / Raikar, Ganesh N. / Lucas, Linda C. / Lemons, Jack E. / Nakamura, Masaaki
To characterize titanium surfaces treated with radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD) after media exposure, surface chemical analyses were performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS). The RFGD treatments resulted in a cleaner surface as compared to as-sputtered or as-autoclaved titanium specimens. The oxide thickness of RFGD-treated titanium specimens was not statistically different from the as-autoclaved and as-sputter cleaned titanium specimens. Exposure to a phosphate-buffered saline solution revealed a greater deposition of calcium and phosphorous on the RFGD-treated surfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles showed that calcium and phosphorous ions diffused into the titanium oxide layer. The calcium and phosphorous deposits were identified as amorphous calcium phosphate compounds using FTIR-RAS. These results suggest that RFGD treatments of titanium enhance calcium and/or phosphate affinity because of an increase in elemental interactions at the surface, thereby resulting in the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds.

Keywords: Auger electron spectroscopy, autoclave, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, glow discharge, surface characterization, x-ray spectroscopy