Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 29 (2014), No. 2 21. Mar. 2014
Purpose: (1) To determine whether immediate loading of orthodontic bone anchors (OBAs) generates more failures than delayed loading and (2) to evaluate the impact of different variables on the success rate of the use of OBAs as temporary anchorage devices in orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective registry, consecutive patients were treated with OBAs by one experienced maxillofacial surgeon. An independent evaluator compared and analyzed different prospectively determined parameters: gender, age (young [< 16 years] versus mature [≥ 16 years]), time of loading (delayed versus immediate), jaw, location, fixation screw length, complications, and orthodontic indications. Success with the OBA was defined as the capacity to maintain anchorage throughout treatment. Premature removal of an OBA because of infection, serious mobility, or persistent pain was considered a failure. Fisher exact tests for analysis of associations between the categorical variables, with the patient as independent variable, were performed. Success and complications were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Sixty-one patients (37 male, 24 female) were treated with 106 OBAs over a 5-year period (2001 to 2006). The reported success rate in this study was 88.3%. In seven patients (11.7%) an OBA was removed prematurely. Age, gender, time of loading, jaw, and location did not influence the failure rate. In 25% of patients, at least one screw failure was noted. A statistically higher screw failure rate was noted in female patients, and the younger group presented more complications than the mature group.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, OBAs are a reliable means to obtain absolute orthodontic anchorage. Immediate loading of an OBA did not generate more failures than delayed loading. Age, jaw, and position did not seem to play important roles in success. Age and gender were important parameters in fixation screw failure rate.
Keywords: delayed loading, immediate loading, longitudinal study, orthodontic anchorage procedures, orthodontic bone anchor, prospective study