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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 31 (2016), No. 1     22. Jan. 2016
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 31 (2016), No. 1  (22.01.2016)

Page 196-203, doi:10.11607/jomi.4190, PubMed:26800179

Assessment of Bone Regeneration Using Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Critical-Size Alveolar Ridge Defects: An Experimental Study in a Dog Model
Alvira-González, Joaquín / Sánchez-Garcés, Maria Àngels / Cairó, Joan R. Barbany / Pozo, Manuel Reina del / Sánchez, Claudia Müller / Gay-Escoda, Cosme
Purpose: To assess bone regeneration potential of a fibronectin- and adipose-derived stem cell-covered ceramic biomaterial in three-wall critical-size alveolar ridge defects.
Materials and Methods: In 18 dogs, four dehiscencetype and critical-size defects were created surgically in the edentulous alveolar ridge. Defects were randomly regenerated using biomaterials coated with particulate ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), ß-TCP with fibronectin (Fn) (ß-TCP-Fn), and ß-TCP with a combination of Fn and autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) (ß-TCP-Fn-ADSCs), leaving one defect as control. The animals were divided into three groups according to the time of euthanasia (1, 2, or 3 months of healing).
Results: At the time of sacrifice, statistically significant differences between the four types of defects in the total area of bone regeneration, percentage of neoformed bone matrix, medullary space, or contact between particulate biomaterial and neoformed bone matrix were not found. All defects showed a significant increase in neoformed bone matrix as sacrifice was delayed, but a uniform pattern was not followed. Only defects treated with ß-TCP-Fn-ADSCs showed a significant increase in the bone regeneration area when animals sacrificed at 3 months were compared to those sacrificed at 1 month (P = .006).
Conclusion: The use of ADSCs in bone regeneration processes of critical-size defects of the alveolar ridge did not entail an advantage regarding greater bone regeneration as compared with other biomaterials. However, the use of ß-TCP coated with a combination of Fn and ADSCs appeared to favor stabilization of the regenerated area, allowing a more efficient maintenance of the space at 3 months of healing.

Keywords: adipose-derived stem cells, dehiscence-type defect, fibronectin, guided bone regeneration, stem cells