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The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants



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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2     10. Mar. 2020
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 35 (2020), No. 2  (10.03.2020)

Page 265-274, doi:10.11607/jomi.7742, PubMed:32142562

The Antibacterial Activity of Hydroxyapatite-Tryptophan Complex with Gray Titania by Photocatalysis Using LED Diodes
Leelanarathiwat, Kanda / Katsuta, Yasuhiro / Otsuka, Yuichi / Katsuragi, Hiroaki / Watanabe, Fumihiko
Purpose: Peri-implantitis is an important biologic complication that can lead to implant failure. Proper treatment should effectively kill bacteria, not harm the implant surface, and promote regeneration. Recently, photocatalytic coating without antibiotics or external agents was proposed to be an alternative to antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photocatalytic antibacterial effect of a new titanium implant coating made from hydroxyapatite-tryptophan complex and gray titania, which was activated by two visible lights.
Materials and Methods: Titanium alloy substrate was plasma sprayed with hydroxyapatite (80 wt%) and dititanium trioxide (20 wt%) and then pressed with tryptophan. Three bacteria related to peri-implantitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were used in this study. Six conditions were tested: (1) control group (only bacteria), (2) photocatalytic sample in darkness (bacteria and coated sample in darkness), (3) red laser for 15 minutes (bacteria irradiated with photoactivated disinfection [PAD] light, 650-nm wavelength), (4) broadband light-emitting diode (LED) for 15 minutes (bacteria irradiated with broadband LED, peak wavelength at 470 nm), (5) photocatalysis by red laser for 15 minutes (bacteria and coated sample irradiated with PAD light), and (6) photocatalysis by broadband LED for 15 minutes (bacteria and coated sample irradiated with broadband LED). After 15 minutes of irradiation, photocatalytic antibacterial effects were evaluated by total viable bacterial count, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay, and LIVE/DEAD assay.
Results: The number of all bacteria tested was significantly decreased by the photocatalytic effect of both visible light sources (P < .05). For P gingivalis, viable bacteria of lethal photosensitization groups were also significantly decreased (P < .05), especially when using the broadband LED. However, the coating material itself did not have antibacterial properties without light activation. There was no significant difference in ATP among groups (P > .05). LIVE/DEAD staining showed that red fluorescent bacterial cells were present in photocatalytic groups from the two light sources.
Conclusion: Photoactivated hydroxyapatite-tryptophan complex and gray titania as a photocatalytic coating has antibacterial effects on bacteria associated with periimplantitis.

Keywords: antibacterial, gray titania, hydroxyapatite, implant coating, photocatalytic, peri-implantitis